Tag Archives: Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl

Owling Costa Rica



Friend and expert photographer David Nelson and I traveled to Costa Rica to do some research on Vermiculated Screech-Owl. While there, we also photographed several other owls including two species that I had never seen before. We flew into San Jose and then headed west to the Carara Biologica Reserva area (1). This area had the first new owl for me: Striped Owl. I have missed this species on previous trips to southern Mexico, Panama and Costa Rica. It is a really beautiful bird. We found four Striped Owls and multiple birds of four other owl species this first night and the next morning.

Our second day we went back across to the Caribbean lowlands to stay for two nights in Veragua (2). This is a developing ecotourism and educational reserve in eastern Costa Rica. Not yet developed for anything beyond a day visit, it was one of the most interesting places we went. The reserve is about a 45-minute drive off the main highway and then another hour on rough dirt roads. We stayed in very basic quarters, setup for the construction crew that had built the reserve’s educational center. At 6:00 each night, everyone left the reserve and we were alone, locked-in and far from anyone. It was quite an experience to be in such a remote Caribbean jungle all alone. The staff turned off the generators at night. Subsequently there were no lights, fans or even water, and no phones or cell phone coverage.

It was a really amazing place to be at night with incredible nocturnal wildlife from jaguars to vipers. The diurnal wildlife was equally impressive. We saw many types of interesting birds, mammals, and two species of poison dart frogs. Owls we found there included Vermiculated Screech-Owl, Crested Owl and Central American Pygmy-Owl, the other owl species new to me. The main reasons for visiting Veragua was first to record Vermiculated Screech-Owl. This would be for a tentative research article on systematics of the Vermiculated Screech-Owl complex. Second, to photograph Central American Pygmy-Owl. We photographed both red and brown phase (morphs) of Vermiculated Screech-Owls. The Central American Pygmy-Owl we also found and photographed. We also recorded the voices of both of the preceding species along with Crested Owl. Our short exploratory venture here was both fascinating and breathtaking.

After Veragua, we went north to La Selva Biological Reserve (3) to get additional recordings and photos of Vermiculated Screech-Owl there. La Selva is a popular destination in Costa Rica. We spent the fourth and fifth nights at this location. Although we got what we went there for, we struggled with rain. In both Veragua and La Selva, we had multiple rain storms that made it difficult to achieve our goals – cameras and recording equipment do not do well in rain! Despite the weather trouble, we got done everything we went there for. La Selva is a beautiful place and a popular birding destination. A large NBC crew (200+) arrived to shoot some new reality show the day we left. They wouldn’t tell us what it was about. We were glad not to be not around for that.

The sixth day found us south again, this time in the San Geraldo de Dota area, a lush, secluded canyon region in the mountains below San Jose (4). We were hoping to photograph a rare red phase of the Costa Rican Pygmy-Owl that I knew was nesting in this canyon. Our stay was very pleasant and we saw lots of new species of birds and wildlife. We found the pygmy-owl we went for, but it stayed very high up in the canopy so our photos were poor. I have photographed and recorded this species before but have to try to get pictures of this color morph another time in the future. It was still nice to get out of the lowlands into the cooler mountains and an interesting change of birds, wildlife and habitat.

On our seventh day we moved to the volcano Irazu to the east of San Jose (5) to look for Unspotted Saw-whet Owl, a very rare species in Costa Rica. It was a long shot and access into the forests along the side of the volcano proved to be just too difficult without more time to explore the area. We did find and photograph Bare-shanked Screech Owl, another mountain species, while searching the area. Late that night we decided to return to the Carara (6) area on the west coast where we began our trip. That way, we could try for better photos of Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl in the early morning before catching our flight home the next afternoon.

Our last morning in Costa Rica went just as planned. We found at least four different Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl individuals and got better photos than we had previously. Even with the unseasonable amounts of rain at this time of year, it was a productive trip and we saw lots of wildlife. Costa Rica is a very beautiful country and always a pleasure to visit.

Enjoy the photos,
Dan Lockshaw




Texas Owls

Two of us visited the gulf coast to search for Texas owls. At this time of year we also went to see some of the North American bird migration. Trying out a few of the new products we are starting to offer at Optics4Birding was a great excuse for our trip. We flew in on April 20th and returned home to southern California on April 28th. In this entry to the blog I will be talking mainly about the Texas owls we saw. More details, calls, and photos can be found on our sister web site Owling.com.

During the last 4 days of our trip, we were in the lower Rio Grande Valley. It was there that we found the three Texas owls species featured in this post. I shot all of the photos in this post with the Canon 7D digital camera. Optics4Birding now carries Canon cameras, lenses and accessories. I have been shooting with Canon equipment for many years now. Yet I got a new 7D virtually the day before this trip. I can’t say enough good things about this camera. It was very impressive. We saw lots of birders carrying them while we were out in the field.

Elf Owl – The First of the Texas Owls

Elf Owl - The First of the Texas Owls

Elf owl in tree cavity

The first of the Texas owls that we came upon was in Bentsen Rio Grande Valley State Park. We happened to be watching a Golden-fronted Woodpecker. I thought the woodpecker might be nesting in this tree when he stuck his head in a hole that was near the top. I guess not! The woodpecker quickly jumped off to the right and out popped another little bird’s face to see who the intruder was. I wasn’t quite ready to take pictures of this event but I had the Canon 7D equipped with a 70-300mm IS lens. The lens is small, light and easy to carry in the field. This lens is great for birders who want a simple lens to catch moments just like this.

The woodpecker and the owl

Texas Elf Owl

Elf Owl looks to see who is outside

As the bird emerged from the hole, I realized it was an Elf Owl with its little round face. This is debatably the smallest owl in the world (one South American species may be slightly lighter). With that big powerful bill we had to wonder why this woodpecker was being so cautious. The Elf Owl is only about half his size. We asked the ranger about this. He said that the woodpeckers had been hanging around the hole that the owl resided in. I think that the owl stole this hole from them and they weren’t happy about it. Although Elf Owls are strictly insectivorous, the woodpeckers are being cautious that the owl does not bite them.

Elf Owl size and Habits

Texas Elf Owl

This Elf Owl realizes we are outside too!

The Elf Owls are one of the most migratory owls in North America and generally only occur as far north as Texas, New Mexico and Arizona, arriving each spring. Elf Owl is a tiny bird, about the same size as a large sparrow. It pleased us to have stumbled across this encounter between the owl and woodpecker. This owl was just too cute as he looked out at us sleepily. We joked about how tired the owl was. It  just couldn’t quite keep its eyes all the way open as it peered down at us. The owl quickly retired back down in his hole. It was a treat to witness this interaction. I knew the Elf Owls were possible here although I wasn’t specifically looking one. Obviously birds respect all owls, regardless of their size!

Eastern Screech-Owl

Eastern Screech-Owl in Texas

This Eastern Screech-Owl in Texas is well camouflaged against this tree trunk.

The next of our Texas owls was an Eastern Screech Owl. We chanced upon this one only a few hundred yards from the Elf Owl. This is the eastern cousin of our Western Screech Owl from home, and the two species are extremely similar in appearance (debatably indistinguishable by appearance alone). The Eastern Screech-Owl, like the Elf Owl, is strictly nocturnal and was visibly very sleepy. This picture is also a great example of the potential photo quality using the 70-300mm Canon lens. This owl has very good camouflaged plumage. Standing at the entrance to its hole, when it closed its eyes it was almost invisible against the tree trunk.

Eastern Screech-Owl in Texas

Spooked by something this Eastern Screech-Owl in Texas fly’s up onto a tree branch

Suddenly, the owl opened its eyes and flew to a nearby tree. It didn’t seem too bothered by me taking photos but something it heard woke him right up and it was very alert. Although I have taken many pictures of Western and Whiskered Screech-Owls, Eastern Screech-Owl is the only screech-owl species in all of North and Central America that I had not previously photographed. In fact, Eastern Screech-Owl was the last North American owl species I needed to photograph. That made this bird a very special one for me, and it also saved me from further night owling adventures with the Texas mosquitoes (I had missed finding Eastern Screech-Owl in the Houston area).

Ferruginous Pygmy Owl

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl in Texas

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl in Texas

The last owl we planned to see in Texas was the Ferruginous Pygmy Owl. It is the rarest owl in North America, found only in Arizona and Texas. I have seen this owl a few times in Arizona. Though very small (as the name implies) Ferruginous Pygmy-Owls are incredibly ferocious. They feed mostly on small birds, but will attack birds up to twice their size. For this bird, I used the 400mm non image stabilized Canon lens. I think the pictures speak for themselves in quality although I am used to using and prefer a zoom lens. The 100-400mm IS Canon lens is also very popular amongst birders and what I normally use for taking photos while bird watching but this is a discussion for another time.


Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl in Texas

This Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl in Texas was calmly sitting on a tree branch. It kept a sharp eye open for potential prey.

It is hard to appreciate how small the Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl really is: though larger than the Elf Owl, it is still only half the size of a Mourning Dove. I once saw a Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl take a bite out of a dove in Mexico while it was making a dive-bombing run at the owl. Other birds may mob and make a fuss about a pygmy-owl in their area, but if one of the attackers gets a little too close it becomes lunch for the owl. The identifying markings of this owl are the streaking on the crown and the rust color on the tail. Northern and Mountain Pygmy-Owls both have round white spots rather than streaks on the crown and white tail bars. Both those species are usually found at a higher elevation.

Texas verses Arizona

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl in Texas

The white forehead streaking of the Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl separate it from the similiar Northern or Mountain Pygmy-Owls.

Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl is getting easier to see in Texas because it is found on well-known ranches where, for a small fee, the ranchers will take you out to see them. These photos were taken at San Miguelito Ranch where there was a breeding pair. The owners couldn’t have been nicer and we got very close looks at the owls. I assume there are similar numbers of these owls in Texas as there are in Arizona. A few years ago while helping the Arizona Fish and Game one of the guys told me they figured there were about 17 pair in the entire state. Finding any on your own could be quite difficult, so going into a known ranch is probably a good plan to see this owl.